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  • Writer's pictureRedwood Naturopathic Medicine

Your Guide to GMO's



What are Genetically Modified Foods:

Genetically modified (GM) foods are created by scientists using biotechnology tools to manipulate the genetic material of plants. This can involve transferring genes from one species to another or modifying existing genes within the same species. The introduced genes may come from unrelated organisms, such as bacteria or viruses, to confer specific traits like pest resistance, herbicide tolerance, enhanced nutritional content, or improved shelf life.



Common genetically modified crops include corn, soybeans, cotton, canola, and alfalfa. GM crops can possess traits such as resistance to insect pests (Bt crops), tolerance to specific herbicides (Roundup Ready crops), or enhanced nutritional profiles. These modifications aim to improve crop productivity, reduce losses from pests and diseases, and address other agricultural challenges.






Pros and Cons of GM Crops:

Proponents of GM food argue that it offers numerous benefits, such as increased crop yields, improved nutritional content, and enhanced resistance to pests, diseases, and environmental stresses. They highlight the potential to address global food security challenges by producing more food with limited resources. Proponents also emphasize the potential to reduce the need for chemical pesticides and herbicides, which can have detrimental effects on the environment and human health. Additionally, they argue that GM food has undergone extensive safety assessments and regulatory scrutiny, ensuring its safety for consumption.


Critics of GM food express concerns about potential risks and uncertainties. They highlight the lack of long-term studies on the health and environmental impacts of GM crops, raising questions about potential allergenicity, gene flow, and unintended consequences. Critics argue that the dominance of a few biotech companies in the seed market could lead to corporate control over the food system, limiting farmer autonomy and biodiversity. Environmentalists expressed concerns about the potential negative impacts on ecosystems and the loss of biodiversity due to the widespread cultivation of GM crops.


Why We Care:

Long-term human studies to assess the safety of genetically modified (GM) crops are currently lacking, as regulatory bodies like the FDA consider them to be substantially similar to their non-GM counterparts, resulting in a lack of labeling requirements for GM foods. Consequently, you probably consume GM foods regularly, particularly if your diet includes a significant amount of processed food items, often without being aware of it.


Is it GMO or Not?

Determining whether a food is genetically modified (GM) or not can be challenging without specific labeling requirements in place. However, here are a few steps you can take to gather information:

  1. Look for mandatory labeling: In some countries, such as the United States and Canada, there may not be mandatory labeling for GM foods. However, you can check for any voluntary labeling initiatives, third-party certifications, or specific labels like "Non-GMO Project Verified" to identify products that are verified to be non-GM.

  2. Read product labels: Although GM foods may not be explicitly labeled, some manufacturers voluntarily provide information on their packaging indicating that their products are free from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) or made with non-GM ingredients. Look for statements such as "Non-GMO," "GMO-Free," or "Made with non-GMO ingredients."

  3. Choose organic products: Certified organic foods, labeled with an organic seal, generally indicate that the product is produced without the use of genetically modified organisms. While this is not always the case, organic certification standards usually prohibit the use of GM ingredients.

  4. Check online resources: Various organizations and databases provide information on GM foods. For example, the Non-GMO Project maintains a database of verified non-GMO products, and other websites or mobile apps might offer information on specific brands or products.

  5. Contact the manufacturer: If you are unsure about a particular food product, you can reach out to the manufacturer directly. Many companies have customer service departments that can provide information about the use of GM ingredients in their products.


(Non-GMO Project Verified Label)








Remember that regulations and labeling requirements may vary between countries, so it is important to consider the specific regulations in your region. Additionally, staying informed about the ongoing developments in GM labeling and consumer advocacy efforts can help you make more informed choices about the foods you consume.


GMOs in the US vs Other Countries

Several countries around the world cultivate genetically modified (GM) or genetically engineered (GE) corn. It's important to note that different countries have varying regulations and labeling requirements for GM foods, and public perceptions and acceptance of these crops can differ globally.


Here are some of the major countries that use GMO corn:

  1. United States: The United States is the largest producer of GM corn. The majority of corn grown in the U.S. is genetically modified. The main traits introduced in GM corn varieties include insect resistance (Bt corn) and herbicide tolerance (glyphosate-resistant corn).

  2. Brazil: Brazil is one of the leading producers and exporters of corn, and it extensively cultivates GM corn. The country adopted genetically modified crops, including corn, in the late 2000s. GM corn varieties with insect resistance and herbicide tolerance are commonly grown in Brazil.

  3. Argentina: Argentina is another significant producer of GM corn. Like Brazil, Argentina embraced genetically modified crops, including corn, in the late 1990s. Herbicide-tolerant and insect-resistant GM corn varieties are cultivated in the country.

  4. Canada: In Canada, GM corn is also grown, although the cultivation area is smaller compared to the United States, Brazil, and Argentina. Farmers in Canada mainly cultivate GM corn with herbicide tolerance traits.

  5. South Africa: South Africa is the largest producer of GM crops in Africa, and GM corn is an important crop in the country. The primary genetically modified trait in South African corn is insect resistance, which helps protect against the African maize stalk borer.

  6. Philippines: The Philippines has adopted GM corn cultivation, primarily for insect-resistant varieties. GM corn was first commercialized in the Philippines in 2003. Insect-resistant corn varieties, particularly those with protection against the Asian corn borer, are widely grown.


Other countries that cultivate GM corn to varying extents include Mexico, India, China, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Colombia. It's worth noting that regulations and acceptance of GM crops can differ among countries, and some nations have restrictions or bans on GM crop cultivation.


To illustrate the complexities of the laws surrounding GM crops, let's dive into Mexico and its approach to GM Corn. Mexico's stance on genetically modified (GM) foods is characterized by a complex and evolving landscape that reflects a range of perspectives and ongoing debates.

  1. Moratorium on Commercial Cultivation: Mexico has maintained a de facto moratorium on the commercial cultivation of GM corn since 2013. This decision aims to preserve the genetic diversity of native corn varieties, protect the cultural and environmental significance of corn in Mexico, and prevent potential risks associated with GM corn.

  2. Controlled Experimental Release and Research: Mexico allows controlled experimental release and research on GM crops, including corn. This includes field trials and evaluations to assess the performance and potential risks of GM crops before any potential commercialization.

  3. Biosafety Regulations: Mexico has specific biosafety regulations in place to ensure the safe handling, use, and release of GM organisms, including GM crops. These regulations require risk assessments to evaluate the potential impacts of GM crops on human health, biodiversity, and the environment.

  4. Mandatory Labeling: Mexico has mandatory labeling requirements for GM food products. If a food product contains more than 1% of GM ingredients, it must be labeled as "contains genetically modified organisms". However, the enforcement and implementation of GM labeling have faced challenges and debates.

  5. Public Concerns and Activism: There is a significant level of public concern and activism surrounding GM foods in Mexico. Indigenous communities, farmers, environmentalists, and consumer advocacy groups have expressed concerns about potential risks, impacts on biodiversity, cultural heritage, and food sovereignty.


It is worth noting that Mexico's stance on GM foods is subject to ongoing discussions, legal battles, and potential policy changes. The country continues to navigate the delicate balance between preserving biodiversity and cultural heritage while considering the potential benefits and risks associated with GM crops.


Overall, the debate surrounding GM food encompasses complex scientific, economic, ethical, and social considerations. While proponents highlight the potential benefits, critics emphasize caution, transparency, and long-term monitoring to ensure safety and mitigate potential risks. Continued research, dialogue, and regulatory oversight are crucial in addressing the differing perspectives and ensuring the responsible development and use of genetically modified food.




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